Ancient Indian Education and Ethics – Its Relevance Today

We are here to critically understand the relevance of Ancient Indian education system in the modern time. Has the modern education ethos has helped to understand the Indian society. Do we want to become original thinkers again or remain in the present system which breeds mediocrity? India need to think carefully how much foreign system of education has helped her. Time has come to go back to high level of education which will produce thinkers.Basis of Indian education has been learning and understanding. It became just memorizing after countless invasions. India was the most prosperous nation in the world in the ancient times. It believed in exploitation of the natural resources just that much which was needed. Excessive exploitation of natural resources was not done nor was it encouraged. In India people worship nature: plants, wind, fire, water, sun and so on. This proves the respect it gave to all the living plants and animals on the Earth. In Hindu religion it is said that over exploitation of the sea, should be avoided and that is known as “samudramanthan.” Giving education was considered as noble job, a solemn duty of the teacher and he should not expect remuneration from the students. A teacher used to be dedicated and did take teaching as a mission.Academics also helped to reform the societies. We could recall the contribution made by the great economics teacher of Takshashila and Nalanda Universities; Chankaya who realized that for economic development in the region it was necessary to make an undivided nation: India. He helped Chandragupta to establish the Mauryan Empire which ruled the entire subcontinent and beyond. This empire in recent time gave the system that gave us the ethical standards which Indians value even now. The education standards were high and people came from far lands to study all streams of subjects here in India. Indians also worship goddess of education “Saraswati.” Even today it is celebrated with great fanfare.Hindus do have a function where the child is introduced to learning and that is the culture of India. Indian society is based on education. People in education are given the highest position in society called Brahmins. In ancient times one had to work very hard to become a Brahmin. In those days it was not by birth. One had to take that profession then only he could become a Brahmin. The Brahmin could not take money to give education. Education in ancient India was free to all. The kingdom would fund education. India is a country which has low literacy but high education. People know about life, nature, plants, and its importance and so on.Indian education system was based on the principle of total development; mind and emotions. Indian system paid great emphasis to development of ethical sole and therefore, introduced brahmacharya system. During this period a student is supposed to learn only. Indian system gave emphasis to learning through practice. It was indeed based on religious practices and religious acts. One must appreciate that religion in those days was just a way of life hence, no conflict with education. One had to follow a strict way of life which one has to still follow. Athavaveda an ancient book talks in detail the education part; the system and methods to be followed.It however, had some defects. Education was restricted to those who deserve and was not available to all. Second it was Guru (teacher) centric i.e. for every thing one had to depend on the guru and his knowledge was considered perfect. Buddhism democratized the education by allowing all to study. This helped to spread education and institutionalise education by forming Universities. Buddhism did not deviate from Hindu system of imparting education but made it broad-based. Here again educators and students had to be religious people and had to follow a strict rules. Even here it was not fully devoid of old Guru System. Even Buddha said “Buddham saranam gachchami” (Come to Buddha to get enlightenment). Mind you, in ancient times the great saints did research on their own and developed body of knowledge which was in contrast to what Buddha said. However, he challenged the system of concentration of knowledge in few hand. This might have diluted the quality of knowledge but this improved the understanding of the people in general in India.This also developed a bond among people of India which is keeping this country together. This is the secret of unity in diversity of India. A diverse country became one population having same principle of life that is achieving mokshya (eternal bliss).Indians always paid great importance to education which would improve the ethical standard of the population. Resilience of ancient Indian education system was proved again and again. Since the early stages of foreign invasion India lost all its material wealth but not the Indian ethos and superiority of our (Arian) culture and believes. This was possible because of the foundation of Indian education system. Others talk about Ethics but Indians practice through education.Aims of the Indian System as I think were:1. The direct aim was to make all students fit to become useful members of the society so that they could follow the duties of all other Ashrams of life faithfully.
2. The aim was to make firm and good character through moral values.
3. The Indian education system made a distinction between mere scholarship and total education.
4. The aim of the system was development of total personality.
5. Next was inculcation of civic and social duties. India in ancient time was a society mainly governed by social laws which gave us our strength. It is the only society where the social system of conducting business was so strong and independent that we survived in spite of foreign invasion and rule.
6. Indian education promoted social efficiency and happiness. We all know in our ancient books there are examples of people helping the society.
7. Ancient education system taught preservation of national heritage and culture hence we still have a culture different from all other societies. This still remains our strength and some day we will be able to re-establish our national pride. This has given us the unbroken continuity since the ancient times. It is the strength of our ancient education that we survive as a nation.Then the question is where did we go wrong? Our education system got encased in a shell for it had to be protected from foreign influence. This violent massacre of our culture by foreign invaders made us extremely introvert. The openness of our society was lost and formal education became the domain of few. This destroyed the ability of our academia to expand knowledge. The burning of our established centers of education made people scared. The mass lost the desire to learn because they did not value home-grown knowledge. People drifted from formal learning process and this gave way to all sorts of raw practices in our society. Indian society lost the basic ability to acquire and take advantage of knowledge. The body of knowledge became foreign which was a rare commodity only the rich could afford. The British rule took advantage of this void and introduced a system to suit needs of the Empire. The system did not encourage beyond copying. This practice is still prevalent in Indian education system. It discourages boys from having their own independent opinion on a subject.We stopped learning and all our ancient texts were being considered as part of religion. We should re-design our education system incorporating the main ethos of our time- tested old system with new knowledge. We must reintroduce the concept of self-control which has been there in our society. This may make our people to appreciate need for ethical standards. Yes, let us go back to the relationship that existed between education and society defined by our age-old tested system. The quality of some of the books written 2500 years ago or beyond is so high that people of today can not write. That was the level of our original research why and when we lost that ability is a matter of concern even now. We must revive that and rebuild the education system in India as we want it; the total development. Copying of the west has not helped and it shall not help in future this has to be recognized once for all. We believe in the Ethical values of the society and that can not be compromised at any cost. Society has lost thousands of years and let us not loses further time in search of right education for India.
Dr Aloke Chakravartty
Dean
School of Management
Brainware
00919230527596

Globalization: Impact on Accounting Education

Globalization is an important concept and has been considered a business phenomenon. Globalization refers to the continued integration of markets as a result of businesses moving more frequently worldwide. Accounting is a byproduct of the business sector so it sees these changes and transformations. These changes and transformations have affected not only accounting standards and principles, but they also have affected accounting education. Due to globalization and more businesses going worldwide, the need to understand more than just what is accepted under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) has become increasingly more important. It is important to have an understanding of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The adoption of IFRS around the world has had a great impact on accounting education. The adoption of the IFRS however can be seen as part of larger movement which involves the globalization of businesses around the world, including that of small businesses So much so that the IFRS has issued IFRS for Small and Medium Sized Entities (Needles Jr., 602). This has made it easier not only for small businesses, but also accounting professionals to have a specific set of guidelines. Since the profession of accounting will become more globalized over time accounting professionals and students will have a difficult time succeeding in the accounting field without continued education and familiarization to new and global accounting standards.Globalization of accounting has some troubles and consequences for accounting education due to the different accounting standards that come along with it. The major trouble is the education and how the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) or the International Accounting Education Standards Board (IAESB) will be capable of coordinating accounting education globally (Needles Jr. 602). There is becoming more and more of a need for a universal set of accounting standards and this is something which would simplify the global education of accounting. There is a public interest for a universal standard and the development of a high quality standards for financial reporting. With a universal standard the education of accounting would not be as varied and it would not contain multiple standards following different financial and tax laws of different countries as it does now. The U.S. set of standards GAAP historically has been considered the highest quality set of financial accounting and reporting standards around the world.There are many similarities between GAAP and international standards however significant differences do exist and these differences become a difficulty for accounting professionals. Since accounting standards are always evolving it is difficult enough to be able to educate based off one set of standards. The current lack of a universal accounting set of standards has made accounting education lag behind that of where the accounting profession is now. With a universal set used by every country and a governing body that is focused solely on expanding and improving that set of standard, this can be seen through the increase use of the IFRS.Understanding global standards, specifically the largest current global standard the IFRS is important to accounting education. Through the globalization of accounting education, the IFRS has become extremely important in the accounting profession. The rise of IFRS and the fact that the differences between IFRS and GAAP are becoming smaller is a good step in the globalization of accounting education since it is easier to teach. Most fortune global 500 are now using IFRS. There has been a movement towards principle based standards has been suggested since it would not only accommodate different countries laws, but it would also faithfully represent the financial transactions and events (Needles Jr 601). The problem with going with a system of principle based standards is educating students in it and how professors would be able to teach these principles without the framework of them.In conclusion globalization has had a major effect on accounting education not just in the United States but in many countries. As many countries attempt to understand and interpret the different accounting principles of different countries it, for example Japan offers a test which tests for knowledge of both the U.S. GAAP principles and the IFRS. Accounting curriculum will need to continue to develop and the focus on global practices should be inserted into the core of the curriculum. In the U.S., IFRS should be taught just as much as GAAP and requirements for students to globalize their understanding of accounting. Students need to have a global understanding that surpasses that of just an understanding of GAAP. Instead of just education students on the financial and tax systems of the country they belong to they must learn and have a comprehensive understanding of the international financial and tax systems. Globalization will continue to bring many benefits but with those benefits it poses a challenge for the accounting profession and the way in which education standards are set and the way in which students are taught accounting.Reference:Needles, B. E. (2010). Accounting Education: The Impact of Globalization. Accounting Education, 19(6), 601-605. doi:10.1080/09639284.2010.501578

Adult Education – It is Never Too Late

You should have rethink if you think that it is too late for you improve your current education level. It is still possible, despite your age to achieve any level of education you want. There is the right education for you out there. Just search for it and make use of it to your advantage.If it happens that you stopped your education due to one reason or the other, it is advisable for you to enroll for adult education. You can do it from anywhere across the globe. Unlike before, many schools out there are now offering various courses that can meet your needs. Also, these schools don’t have strict entry requirements for adults like you. The requirement varies from one school to another but they are all aimed to encourage people like you to go back to school without much difficulty.One of the reasons you should go back to school is promotion. You know your level of education has been your problem when they are compiling the list of people for promotion. Despite all the years you have spent in that company and your faithfulness, they still don’t promote. Don’t you think this is the right time for you to enroll for adult education so that you can be qualified for the next promotion? You have delayed the decision for long. This is the right time. How long will you allow new recruits to be promoted above you? After reading this article, take action.There are times that your lack of a diploma certificate can be your bane professionally. In a country like the United States, it is just not possible for you to get good jobs without a good education level. But the good news is that you can turn around the situation now by going for adult education and earn a certificate that will help you achieve a lot with your life.Adult education varies from one institution to another. While some make plans for short and simple programs, others prefer offering you longer lasting ones. It is really up to you to determine what you want based on what you are presenting as your qualifications.The cost of adult education also varies from one institution to another. Some schools are very expensive while others are affordable. Your concern should be the quality and not the price. There are several ways out there if funding your adult education programs. Also, you can consult with your boss. Contrary to what you may think, your boss or company may actually be interested in funding your education. They know the company will be the better for it when you are through. So, don’t let anything hold you back. Go for it!